Carbon Capture and Storage

The need to update energy policies at global level to effectively tackle climate changes is now widely regarded as a priority by scientific community, politicians and people. The international community has recognized that global warming must be kept below 2ºC compared to the temperature in pre-industrial times to prevent catastrophic climate change.
That's why it is necessary to reduce drastically CO2 and other greenhouse gas (GHG) global emissions in the decades to come.tour-sotacarbo-plants-ss2013

It's unanimously accepted the need of an integrated approach, both for the use of energy and its production: it's necessary to accelerate the transition to an economy no longer based on fossil fuels, but on increasing efficiency  – both on the demand and the supply side - and on renewable energy sources, focusing simultaneously on clean technologies and emissions tending to zero in the use of fossil fuels.

International agencies for energy agree that the demand for energy in the world will grow (IEA) by about 45% between now and 2030 - an average annual growth rate of 1.8 % / year - with the use of coal for more than a third of the total growth; in addition, 97% of the increasing projected emissions between now and 2030 will come from non-OECD countries, of which three-quarters from China, India and countries in the middle East.
Energy policy and research in this area must therefore take into account that the use of fossil fuels in the coming decades will remain very high, especially in countries with emerging economies; the development and dissemination in large-scale of cost-competitive zero-emissions technologies takes a long time; it is essential to work immediately to reduce fossil fuels emissions into the atmosphere.

The carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies have the potential to significantly contribute to fight against climate changes. CCS approach involves the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) produced by power plants or industrial installations, its transport to designated sites and its injection into geological formations, in which it is trapped. These geological formations (for example oil fields or depleted gas, saline aquifers, etc...) can be situated on-shore or off-shore, several kilometers below sea level.